Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart was born on 27 January 1756 to Leopold Mozart (1719–1787) and Anna Maria, née Pertl (1720–1778), at 9 Getreidegasse in Salzburg. It was the capital of the Archbishopric of Salzburg, an ecclesiastic principality in what is now Austria, subsequently part of the Holy Roman Empire. He was the youngest of seven children, five of whom perished in infancy. His big sister was Maria Anna (1751–1829), nicknamed “Nannerl”. Mozart was baptized the day after his arrival at St. Rupert’s Cathedral. The baptismal record gives his name in Latinized form as Joannes Chrysostomus Wolfgangus Theophilus Mozart. He usually called himself “Wolfgang Amadè Mozart” as an adult, but his name had many variations.
Leopold Mozart, a native of Augsburg, Germany, was a minor composer and a seasoned teacher. In 1743, he was named as fourth violinist in the musical establishment of Count Leopold Anton von Firmian, the ruling Prince-Archbishop of Salzburg. Four years after, he married Anna Maria in Salzburg. Leopold became the orchestra’s deputy Kapellmeister in 1763. During the year of his son’s arrival, Leopold released a violin textbook, Versuch einer gründlichen Violinschule, which reached success.
Mozart ultimately returned from Italy with his dad on 13 March 1773, and was employed as a court musician by the ruler of Salzburg Prince Archbishop Hieronymus Colloredo. The composer had a lot of friends and admirers in Salzburg, and had the chance to to work in many music genres, including symphonies, sonatas, string quartets, masses, serenades, and several minor operas. Between April and December 1775, Mozart acquired an excitement for violin concertos, creating a string of five (the only ones that he ever wrote), which steadily improved in their musical edification. The last three—K. 216, K. 218, K. 219—are now staples of the repertoire. In 1776, he turned his attempts to piano concertos, culminating in the E-flat concerto K. 271 of early 1777, considered by critics to be a breakthrough work.
Despite these artistic successes, Mozart grew increasingly discontented with Salzburg and redoubled his efforts to discover a place elsewhere. One motive was his low wages, 150 florins a year; Mozart longed to compose operas, and Salzburg supplied solely infrequent occasions for these. The position worsened in 1775 when the court theatre was closed, particularly since another theatre in Salzburg was mostly earmarked for visiting troupes.
Two long expeditions in search of work interrupted this long Salzburg remain. Mozart and his dad visited Vienna from 14 July to 26 September 1773, and Munich from 6 December 1774 to March 1775. Neither visit was successful, though the Munich journey resulted in a popular success with the premiere of Mozart’s opera La finta giardiniera.